The 4th Maryland Regiment was organized on 27 March 1776 with eight companies from Baltimore, Anne Arundel and Somerset counties in the colony of Maryland.
It was authorized on September 16, 1776 for service with the Continental Army and assigned to the main on 27 December 1776. It was assigned to the 2d Maryland Brigade on 22 May 1777. The regiment was re-organized to nine companies on 12 May 1779. On 5 April 1780 the 2d Maryland Brigade was re-assigned to the Southern Department. On 1 January 1781 the regiment was relieved from the 2d Maryland Brigade. On 24 September 1781 the regiment was assigned to Gist's Brigade in the Main Continental Army. Three days later, (27 September 1781) Gist's Brigade was re-assigned to the Southern Department. On 4 January 1782 the regiment was re-assigned to the Maryland Brigade in the Southern Department. The regiment would see action during the Battle of Brandywine, Battle of Germantown, Battle of Monmouth, Battle of Camden, Battle of Guilford Court House and the Battle of Yorktown. the regiment was disbanded on January 1, 1783 at Charleston, South Carolina.